Production of technological knowledge: New issues in a learning economy
This all investigates different directions in which scientific information is generated and already functioning in culture. In addition to recognizing the processes at stake in transition, important lessons can be made for science and technology policies, particularly for organizations and public research opportunities. From this context, the key features of the conventional information creation dream are briefly remembered in the first part of the chapter. These are focused on the differentiation between science and technology on one hand, and public and private study on the other.
The second section is dedicated to an overview of the current mode of information creation, including: (1) improved forms of codifying awareness that raise the degree of externalities, (2) shifts in the function and actions of private (industrial) and public science, and (3) reconsideration of collaboration reward structures. The last portion deduces the public policy ramifications of a conceptual change.
It is best explained by an example
A determinant of efficiency is the perception of scientific information on the best ways to manufacture products and services. Many Americans lived on farms 100 years ago because agricultural technology demanded high labor inputs to support the whole community. Now, due to advancements in farming technology, a tiny fraction of the population will generate enough food to feed the entire nation. The technical transition produced labor for the development of many products and services.
Technical information has several forms. Many technologies become popular knowledge as everybody is conscious of it when one person tries it. For example, after the manufacturing of assembly lines had been effectively implemented by Henry Ford, other automobile manufacturers soon followed suit. Another technology is proprietary – it’s known only to the discoverer company. Another example is Coca-Cola knowing the secret formula for producing its famous soft drink. For a limited period, some certain hardware is proprietary. When a pharmaceutical firm discovers a revolutionary drug, the patent law grants it a conditional privilege to be the exclusive supplier. However, when the patent expires, other companies can make the drug. All these forms of technical knowledge are important for the production of goods and services in the economy.
It is worth distinguishing between technological knowledge and human capital. Although closely related, there is a significant difference. Technological literacy relates to the perception that humanity has about how the environment functions. Human capital applies to the tools used to convey knowledge to workers.
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