The PSI measurement is also referred to as the Practical Scaling Index. The index was formulated to form a highly accurate indication of the potential of water to form scales. It puts into consideration the buffering capacity of water (Laier, 2003). The value of PSI can be used to determine the amount of CaCO3Â that can be precipitated in order to stop the formation of scales.
According to the index, water that has a high calcium deposition, but which is low in buffering capacity and alkalinity, is likely to be highly saturated with CaCO3. Such liquid is likely to precipitate the compound, which then floats to the surface, leading to scaling. The PSI value is calculated using a formula that is similar to the one used for RSI. However, PSI uses equilibrium pH, unlike RSI, which utilizes the actual system pH. The formula below is used:
PSI = 2 (pHs) â€“ Pheq.
In the formula, pHsÂ is the pH of CaCO3Â at saturation. Pheq, on the other hand, is calculated as PheqÂ =1.465 * log 10[Alkalinity] + 4.54. In this case, alkalinity is calculated using the formula given below:
Alkalinity = [HCO3â€“] + 2 [CO32-] + [OHâ€“].
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