Signs of the infectious stage of bacteria in the host

Upon the successful colonization of the host by the bacteria, it results in infectious disease. The disease can be defined as the combination of signs and symptoms that are entirely different from the normal structural and functional mechanisms of the host cell.

Bacterial infections lead to certain diseases and these microorganisms are called pathogens. The symptoms are measurable both quantitatively and qualitatively. The major symptoms include, 1) increase or decrease in body temperature (±37º C), 2) rate of heartbeat, 3) rate of breathing, and 4) difference in blood pressure.

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If the primary sign is a fever, then the body temperature goes more than 37ºC, which can be measured quantitatively. In addition to such important physiological changes, many other conditions such as the rise or appearance of specific antibodies produced by immune cells can be found in certain cases. These antibodies are found in the body for a long time hence further infections by the same bacteria can be effectively eliminated by the host immune system by specific antigen-antibody reactions.

The symptoms are very subjective and are felt by the infected patient and cannot be confirmed by clinical diagnosis. Examples of such symptoms are, 1) pain and 2) loss of appetite. These symptoms are very essential for the disease diagnosis. Some lab technicians can able to quantify the symptoms by preparing a questionnaire for the patients.

For example, certain bacteria cause sweating which creates more pain in the body and alters the skin conductivity. This leads to the imbalance of sympathetic activity causing pain from stress.

Syndrome refers to the combination of signs and symptoms.

Infection stage of bacteria
(1) By food:

Some of the bacterial infections are mediated by food consumption. The common signs and symptoms are nausea, vomiting, fever, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and chills that occur from food poisoning. Certain food such as, poultry products, fish, meat, eggs, and dairy products that are not properly pasteurized can harbor certain pathogenic bacteria and cause infections. Some of the foodborne bacterial infections are given as follows.

Bacteria mediated diarrhoeal infections:

This diarrhoeal infection is caused by

Campylobacter jejuni (causes fever and cramps),

Clostridium botulinum (produces potent neurotoxins that affect the nervous system of the host), and

Escherichia coli (causes infections with symptoms such as fever, nausea, abdominal cramps, and vomiting).

Certain infectious bacterial pathogens such as

Listeria monocytogenes (causes fever, diarrhea, and muscle pain). This pathogen also infects pregnant women, and infants having weak immunity,

Salmonella (foodborne pathogens causes abdominal cramps, fever, and diarrhea that lasts for a maximum of one week), and

Vibrio which causes diarrhoeal symptoms upon ingesting the infected food. This bacterial infection causes severe skin infections that are established in contact with an open wound system.

(2) By sexual transmission:

Most sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are caused by bacterial pathogens. Some of the STDs are asymptomatic but they cause serious pathological effects in the host system particularly in the reproductive system. Some of the bacterial STDs are explained as follows.

Chlamydial and Gonorrhoeal infections-

The chlamydial infection is found to occur in both males and females. This infection is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. The pathogen causes pelvic inflammatory disease in the infected women.

The Gonorrhoeal infection is caused by Neisseria gonorrhea that infects both males and females which leads to pelvic inflammatory disease in women.

Syphilis and bacterial vaginosis:

The syphilis infection is caused by Treponema pallidum in both males and females. The untreated infected patients are potentially dangerous and may lead to their death.

The bacterial vaginosis in women shows a major symptom as the overgrowth of the pathogenic bacteria in the vagina. According to the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) in the United States, bacterial vaginosis is not an STD.

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