1. Sodium channels: In the sodium channel, during the action potential in cells like endocrine, muscles, and nerve, the rapid influx of ions takes place. Agonist: Aconitine Antagonist: Type-1 anti-arrhythmic drugs and local anesthetics.
2. Calcium channels: In this type of channel, the influx of calcium occurs in action to depolarization of the membrane and intracellular processes involving neurotransmission, secretion, and contraction. These are of 5 types:
L-type: This type of calcium ion channels is present in cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, dendrites, and aldosterone secretion of the adrenal cortex. It is involved in excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal and cardiac muscle.
N-type: It is present all over the brain and peripheral nervous system and involved in neurotransmission.
T-type: It is responsible for controlling the pace-making activity of the sinus node within the heart.
R-type: Neuron and dendrites.
P/Q type: It is present in the Purkinje cells in the cerebellum.
3. Potassium channels: These channels are involved in the propagation and generation of electrical impulses in the nervous system. When there is a change in the transmembrane potential, the channel opens and allows the movement of potassium ions from the cell to retain its membrane potential. Agonist: Retigabine Antagonist: 4-amino pyridine
4. Chloride channels: It is present in all types of neurons. They restore the resting membrane potential, regulate cell volume, and control excitability.
Ligand-gated ion channel:
It is a transmembrane protein that allows the movement of ions like Ca2+, Cl-, Na+, K+ to pass through the membrane on binding to a ligand.
This type of channel is less selective that permits two or more types of ions to pass through the channel pore. They are all receptors and the structure consists of transmembrane and extracellular domains.
These channels are gated by the binding specific ligand to an ortho steric site which undergoes structural modifications that change the permeability of the channel protein. The following are the two types of ligand-gated ion channel are:
1. Extracellularly activated ligand-gated ion channel: It includes receptors that belong to the family cys-loop. Some of them are nicotinic receptors, glycine, and serotonin.
2. Intracellularly activated ligand-gated ion channel: These include chloride pump, ATP sensitive potassium pump, aquaporins, and G-protein-activated potassium pump.
Ligand-gated ion channels are known to target several drugs that are used for treating diseases like epilepsy, Alzheimerâ€™s disease, autism, anxiety, depression, and Schizophrenia.
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