An oxygen atom has six valence shell electrons. The electronic configuration of oxygen atom is 1s2 2s2 2p4. A hydrogen atom has one valence shell electron, so its electronic configuration is 1s1. Since water molecule consists of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms, therefore, one oxygen atom bonds with two hydrogen atoms through two single covalent bonds. The electrons in 1s orbitals of hydrogen atoms and the electrons in 2s orbital of oxygen atom take part in covalent bond formation. The electrons in 2p orbitals of oxygen atom do not take part in bond formation and hence remain unpaired.
The oxygen atom is more electronegative than the hydrogen atoms. So, it has a partial negative charge and the hydrogen atoms have partial positive charges. As a result, the covalent bond between them is a polar covalent bond.
Covalent sharing of electrons between the oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms gives rise to the formation of two covalent bonds. The 1s electrons of oxygen atom are inert. Only the valence shell electrons take part in bond formation.Water can exist in three phases- solid, liquid, and vapor.
The solid phase of water is called ice. It exists at 0Â°C or 32Â°F or 273 K. It is produced upon freezing of liquid water. In the solid phase, the water molecules are closely packed, and they are not free to move. But there are certain voids between the water molecules after they attract each other by hydrogen bonding to form lattices. Due to these voids in the structure of the ice, it is less dense than liquid water. This is the reason why ice can float in liquid water. At 4 Â°C, liquid water is denser than ice. So, denser water goes below and ice floats above it. This ice can insulate the water during winter and makes aquatic lives possible during winter.
The liquid phase of water exists at temperatures above 0 Â°C or 32 Â°F or 273 K and below 100 Â°C or 212 Â°F or 373 K. It can be produced by melting ice, or by condensing water vapor. It commonly exists at room temperature. In this phase, the water molecules attract each other by hydrogen bonding and are randomly arranged. They can also have some free movement.
The vapor phase of water exists at 100 Â°C or 212 Â°F or 373 K. It is produced when liquid water is evaporated, or when ice is sublimed. In this phase, the water molecules are far away and can move freely. Water vapor is present in the atmosphere in the form of clouds. They condense and then come down as rain, a form of liquid water. When the atmospheric temperature is very low, water vapor condenses and comes down as snow. Steam at 100 Â°C can cause more injuries than boiling water at 100 Â°C.
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